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J Biol Chem. 2004 Mar 26;279(13):12677-84. Epub 2004 Jan 13.

Residues 110-126 in the A1 domain of factor VIII contain a Ca2+ binding site required for cofactor activity.

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  • 1Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Rochester School of Medicine, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.


Generation of factor VIII cofactor activity requires divalent metal ions such as Ca2+ or Mn2+. Evaluation of cofactor reconstitution from isolated factor VIIIa subunits revealed the presence of a functional Ca2+ binding site within the A1 subunit. Isothermal titration calorimetry demonstrated at least two Ca2+ binding sites of similar affinity (K(d) = 0.74 microm) within the A1 subunit. Mutagenesis of an acidic residue-rich region in the A1 domain (residues 110-126) homologous to a putative Ca2+ binding site in factor V (Zeibdawi, A. R., and Pryzdial, E. L. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 19929-19936) and expression of B-domainless factor VIII molecules yielded reagents to probe Ca2+ and Mn2+ binding in a functional assay. Basal activity observed for wild type factor VIII in a metal ion-free buffer was enhanced approximately 2-fold with saturating Ca2+ or Mn2+ and yielded functional K(d) values of 1.2 and 1.40 microm, respectively. Ca2+ binding affinity was greatly reduced (or lost) in several mutants including E110A, E110D, D116A, E122A, D125A, and D126A. Alternatively, E113A, D115A, and E124A showed wild type-like activity with little or no reduction in Ca2+ affinity. However, Mn2+ affinity was minimally altered except for mutant D125A (and D116A). These results are consistent with region 110-126 serving a critical role for Ca2+ coordination with selected residues capable of contributing to a partially overlapping site for Mn2+, and that occupancy of either site is required for maximal cofactor activity.

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