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Pediatr Clin North Am. 2003 Dec;50(6):1283-300.

Current immunosuppressive agents: efficacy, side effects, and utilization.

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  • 1Division of Nephrology, Children's Hospital and Regional Medical Center, 4800 Sand Point Way, NE 5G-1, Seattle, WA 98105-0371, USA.


Advances in immunosuppressive therapy over the past decade have led to dramatic improvements in graft survival. With the development of new agents, the focus of the transplant community is to establish regimens that maintain excellent graft survival rates but with fewer toxicities including infection, nephrotoxicity, malignancy, and cosmetic effects. Examples include the use of steroid-free protocols and calcineurin avoidance regimens, which are currently being studied by NAPRTCS. The ultimate goal of transplant immunosuppressive therapy is the induction of tolerance. As we learn more about immune function from basic and clinical research, tolerance to allografts seems a more reachable goal.

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