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Ann Intern Med. 2004 Jan 6;140(1):9-17.

The prevalence of nontraditional risk factors for coronary heart disease in patients with chronic kidney disease.

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  • 1Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.



Risk for coronary heart disease is high among patients with chronic kidney disease.


To compare the prevalence of low apolipoprotein A1 levels and elevated apolipoprotein B, plasma fibrinogen, lipoprotein(a), homocysteine, and C-reactive protein levels by estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR).


Cross-sectional study.


Third National Health and Nutrition Examination survey.


12 547, 3180, and 744 persons with estimated GFRs of at least 90, 60 to 89, or less than 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2, respectively, who were at least 18 years of age.


Chronic kidney disease was defined as an estimated GFR of less than 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 based on the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula.


After standardization for age, race or ethnicity, and sex, lower estimated GFR (> or =90, 60 to 89, or <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2) was associated with lower average levels of apolipoprotein A1 (1.44, 1.43, and 1.35 g/L) and higher levels of apolipoprotein B (1.03, 1.06, and 1.08 g/L), plasma fibrinogen (8.43, 8.44, and 9.53 micromol/L), homocysteine (8.5, 10.0, and 13.2 micromol/L), and C-reactive protein (3.0, 2.9, and 3.9 mg/L) (P < 0.05 for all values). The multivariate-adjusted odds ratios of an apolipoprotein A1 level of less than 1.2 g/L, a serum lipoprotein(a) level of at least 1.61 micromol/L (> or =45.3 mg/dL), a plasma fibrinogen level of at least 10.35 micromol/L, a serum homocysteine level of at least 15 micromol/L, and a C-reactive protein level of at least 10.0 mg/L for participants with chronic kidney disease compared with those with a GFR of at least 90 mL/min per 1.73 m2 or greater were 1.92 (95% CI, 1.02 to 3.63), 1.82 (CI, 1.06 to 3.13), 1.74 (CI, 1.35 to 2.24), 8.23 (CI, 5.00 to 13.6), and 1.93 (CI, 1.33 to 2.81), respectively.


Levels of apolipoprotein A1 are decreased and levels of homocysteine, lipoprotein(a), fibrinogen, and C-reactive protein are increased among patients with chronic kidney disease.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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