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J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Jul 30;51(16):4746-52.

Effect of whey protein on the in vivo release of aldehydes.

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  • 1Department of Flavor, Nutrition and Ingredients, NIZO Food Research, P.O. Box 20, 6710 BA Ede, The Netherlands.


Retention of aldehydes by whey proteins in solutions buffered at a range of pH values was studied under static and dynamic headspace conditions and in vivo in exhaled air. Static headspace measurements showed a clear increase in retention in the presence of whey proteins for aldehydes with longer carbon chains and for buffer solutions with higher pH values. For in vivo aldehyde release measurements, these effects were much less pronounced. The presence of saliva or the binding of aldehydes to the surface of the oral cavity was not responsible for this effect. This difference can be explained by the highly dynamic conditions of in vivo aroma release of liquid products, due to the relatively large flow of air during exhalation. After swallowing, a thin film of aldehyde solution remains in the pharynx; subsequent exhalation will release both the free aldehydes present in this film and those reversibly bound to the whey protein.

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