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Mutat Res. 2004 Jan 12;545(1-2):11-21.

Mutagenicity of benzo[b]phenanthro[2,3-d]thiophene (BPT) and its metabolites in TA100 and base-specific tester strains (TA7001-TA7006) of Salmonella typhimurium: evidence of multiple pathways for the bioactivation of BPT.

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  • 1Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Laboratory, Great Lakes Center, State University of New York College at Buffalo, NY 14222, USA.


Benzo[b]phenanthro[2,3-d]thiophene (BPT), and a number of its metabolites, including BPT-3,4-diol, BPT sulfoxide, BPT sulfone, and 3-hydroxyBPT were assessed for their mutagenic activity in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100, and S. typhimurium base-specific strains TA7001, TA7002, TA7003, TA7004, TA7005, and TA7006. Among the compounds tested in strain TA100, BPT, BPT sulfone, and 3-hydroxyBPT did not show any significant mutagenic response in the presence of S9. In contrast BPT sulfoxide and BPT-3,4-diol (a precursor to the bay-region diol epoxide of BPT) showed significant mutagenic activity in the presence of S9. Surprisingly, BPT sulfoxide was nearly 3.3-fold more mutagenic than BPT-3,4-diol in the presence of S9. BPT sulfoxide also displayed intrinsic mutagenic activity, which was nearly 1.5-fold less than that displayed by BPT-3,4-diol in the presence of S9. In base specific tester strains, BPT sulfoxide was the most active metabolite in strains TA7002, TA7004, and TA7005 with S9 activation. In these strains, BPT-3,4-diol was 2- to 7-fold less mutagenic than BPT sulfoxide in the presence of S9. Only in strain TA7006, BPT-3,4-diol was four-fold more mutagenic than BPT sulfoxide. The fact that BPT sulfoxide is significantly more mutagenic than BPT-3,4-diol in S. typhimurium strain TA100 suggests that the formation of sulfoxide may be the principal pathway for the metabolic activation of BPT to mutagenic products. Based on the results from Tester Strain TA7005, it indicate that BPT and its most mutagenic metabolite BPT sulfoxide induce predominantly CG --> AT transversion, which is observed as the most frequent base substitution mutation of p53 tumor-suppressor gene in human lung cancer.

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