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Am Heart J. 2004 Jan;147(1):16-22.

Randomized trial of Rotational Atherectomy Versus Balloon Angioplasty for Diffuse In-stent Restenosis (ROSTER).

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  • 1Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory of Zena and Michael A. Wiener Cardiovascular Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, NY, USA. samin.sharma@msnyuhealth.org



Various autopsy and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) studies have shown neointimal proliferation as the main mechanism of in-stent restenosis (ISR) responsible for >95% of luminal narrowing while stent struts are not compressed. ISR of diffuse type has a high incidence of recurrence (up to 70%) after balloon angioplasty (PTCA). Tissue ablation with percutaneous rotational coronary atherectomy (PRCA) may be more efficacious compared to tissue compression or extrusion after PTCA for the interventional treatment of diffuse ISR.


The Rotational Atherectomy Versus Balloon Angioplasty for Diffuse In-Stent Restenosis (ROSTER) trial is a single-center, randomized trial comparing PRCA to PTCA (both with IVUS guidance) in the treatment of diffuse ISR in 200 patients. In the PRCA group (n = 100), rotablation was performed using a burr-to-artery ratio >0.7 followed by adjunctive balloon dilatation at low pressure (4-6 atm). In the PTCA group (n = 100), high-pressure (>12 atm) balloon dilatation was performed using an optimal size balloon. The study's primary end point was target lesion revascularization (TLR) at 9 months and secondary end points included clinical events at 1 year and angiographic restenosis in a substudy of the last 75 patients enrolled.


Baseline clinical and angiographic variables were comparable between the 2 groups with similar procedural and angiographic success, but a higher rate of repeat stenting occurred in the PTCA group (31% vs 10%; P <.001). Although the angiographic acute luminal gain was similar between the 2 groups, IVUS analysis revealed lower residual intimal hyperplasia area after PRCA versus PTCA (2.1 +/- 0.9 mm2 vs. 3.3 +/- 1.8 mm2; P =.005). At a mean follow-up of 12 +/- 2 months, there were 2 deaths, 3 myocardial infarctions, and 3 coronary artery bypass graft procedures in each group. TLR incidence was 32% in the PRCA group and 45% in the PTCA group (P =.042), with a similar trend noted in the angiographic substudy.


The ROSTER trial for diffuse ISR revealed both PRCA and PTCA to be safe and effective, but PRCA resulted in less residual intimal hyperplasia, lower repeat stent use, and decreased TLR.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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