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Phys Rev Lett. 2003 Dec 5;91(23):233202. Epub 2003 Dec 3.

Resonant enhancement and dissipation in nonequilibrium van der Waals forces.

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  • 1Department of Physics, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-4060, USA.


Dispersion forces between molecules that are in relative motion, coupled to baths at different temperatures, or in excited states, are calculated using a Green function Liouville space expansion that extends the celebrated McLachlan response theory to the nonlinear regime. Our dynamical theory is applicable to systems that may be in any initial nonequilibrium state and that are subject to an arbitrary time-dependent coupling. In contrast to equilibrium forces which are attractive, nonequilibrium forces may be attractive or repulsive, exhibit chemically specific resonances, are far stronger, and may be nonconservative (with either positive or negative dissipation).

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