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An Pediatr (Barc). 2003 Oct;59(4):366-72.

[Ventilation in special situations. Mechanical ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome/acute pulmonary lesion].

[Article in Spanish]

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  • 1Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos, Hospital Central de Asturias, Oviedo, España.


Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which was first described by Ashbaugh in 1967, consists of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (PaO2/FiO2< or =200) associated with bilateral infiltrates on the chest radiograph caused by noncardiac diffuse pulmonary edema. Although ARDS is of multiple etiology, pulmonary or extrapulmonary injury can produce systemic inflammatory response that perpetuates lung disturbances once the initial cause has been eliminated. Most patients with ARDS require mechanical ventilation. Currently, the old standard is conventional ventilation optimized to protect against ventilator-associated lung injury. Other mechanical ventilation strategies such as high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, which is also based on alveolar recruitment and adequate lung volume, can be useful alternatives. In this review, the level of evidence for other therapies, such as prone positioning, nitric oxide and prostacyclin inhalation, exogenous surfactant, and extracorporeal vital support techniques are also analyzed.

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