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Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2003 Dec;17(6):943-56.

Intestinal absorption in health and disease--sugars.

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  • 1Departments of Physiology and Pediatrics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1751, USA. ewright@mednet.ucla.edu

Abstract

Carbohydrates are mostly digested to glucose, fructose and galactose before absorption by the small intestine. Absorption across the brush border and basolateral membranes of enterocytes is mediated by sodium-dependent and -independent membrane proteins. Glucose and galactose transport across the brush border occurs by a Na(+)/glucose (galactose) co-transporter (SGLT1), whereas passive fructose transport is mediated by a uniporter (GLUT5). The passive exit of all three sugars out of the cell across the basolateral membrane occurs through two uniporters (GLUT2 and GLUT5). Mutations in SGLT1 cause a major defect in glucose and galactose absorption (glucose-galactose Malabsorption), but mutations in GLUT2 do not appear to disrupt glucose and galactose absorption. Studies on GLUT1 null mice and Fanconi-Bickel patients suggest that there is another exit pathway for glucose and galactose that may involve exocytosis. There are no known defects of fructose absorption.

PMID:
14642859
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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