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Blood. 2004 Mar 1;103(5):1653-61. Epub 2003 Oct 30.

Inhibition of restenosis by tissue factor pathway inhibitor: in vivo and in vitro evidence for suppressed monocyte chemoattraction and reduced gelatinolytic activity.

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  • 12nd Department of Medicine, Division of Angiology, University of Vienna Medical School, Vienna, Austria.


Activation of inflammatory and procoagulant mechanisms is thought to contribute significantly to the initiation of restenosis, a common complication after balloon angioplasty of obstructed arteries. During this process, expression of tissue factor (TF) represents one of the major physiologic triggers of coagulation that results in thrombus formation and the generation of additional signals leading to vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration. In this study, we have investigated the mechanisms by which inhibition of coagulation at an early stage through overexpression of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), an endogenous inhibitor of TF, might reduce restenosis. In a rabbit femoral artery model, percutaneous delivery of TFPI using a recombinant adenoviral vector resulted in a significant reduction of the intimamedia ratio 21 days after injury. Investigating several markers of inflammation and coagulation, we found reduced neointimal expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), lesional monocyte infiltration, and expression of vascular TF, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and MMP-9. Moreover, overexpression of TFPI suppressed the autocrine release of platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB), MCP-1, and MMP-2 in response to factors VIIa and Xa from VSMCs in vitro and inhibited monocyte TF activity. These results suggest that TFPI exerts its action in vivo through not only thrombotic, but also nonthrombotic mechanisms.

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