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Opt Lett. 2003 Oct 15;28(20):1915-7.

Dual-axes confocal microscopy with post-objective scanning and low-coherence heterodyne detection.

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  • 1Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA. tdwang@stanford.edu


We present a dual-axes confocal microscope that employs postobjective scanning and low-coherence heterodyne detection to collect vertical cross-sectional images from biological tissue with high axial resolution, reduced noise from scattered light, deep tissue penetration, and a large dynamic range. This architecture can be scaled down to millimeter dimensions with microelectromechanical systems technology for performance of in vivo optical biopsy.

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