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Heredity (Edinb). 2003 Nov;91(5):487-93.

Population genetic structure of the malaria vector Anopheles minimus A in Vietnam.

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  • 1Department of Parasitology, Prince Leopold Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nationalestraat 155, B-2000 Antwerpen, Belgium.


Anopheles minimus A, a major malaria vector in Southeast Asia, is the main target of vector control in this area. The impact of these control measures can be influenced by the population structure of the target species. In rural areas, An. minimus breeds along the banks of small clear-water streams, yet in the suburbs of Hanoi, northern Vietnam, there is an An. minimus population whose immature stages develop in water tanks. This study uses allozyme data (1) to assess the population structure of An. minimus A and (2) to evaluate the taxonomic status of the urban An. minimus population from Hanoi. The population from the suburbs of Hanoi was identified as An. minimus A. Although significant genetic differentiation was observed between rural and urban An. minimus A populations, they have not differentiated substantially by genetic drift. Limited macrogeographical differentiation was observed between two rural populations at distances of more than 1000 km. Consequently, geographical distance is not the primary factor in differentiating An. minimus A populations having the typical breeding ecology. The estimated effective population size is consistent with the moderate macrogeographical differentiation. Furthermore, no genetic structuring was observed between adult mosquitoes having different behaviour. The macrogeographical population structure indicates that genes may spread over large areas, whereas the presence of an 'urban' An. minimus A population shows the ability of this species to adapt to anthropogenic environmental changes.

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