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Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2003 Nov 15;57(4):915-28.

Long-term multi-institutional analysis of stage T1-T2 prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy in the PSA era.

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  • 1Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston 77030, USA.



To report the long-term outcome for patients with Stage T1-T2 adenocarcinoma of the prostate definitively irradiated in the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) era.


Nine institutions combined data on 4839 patients with Stage T1b, T1c, and T2 adenocarcinoma of the prostate who had a pretreatment PSA level and had received >or=60 Gy as definitive external beam radiotherapy. No patient had hormonal therapy before treatment failure. The median follow-up was 6.3 years. The end point for outcome analysis was PSA disease-free survival at 5 and 8 years after therapy using the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) failure definition.


The PSA disease-free survival rate for the entire group of patients was 59% at 5 years and 53% at 8 years after treatment. For patients who had received >or=70 Gy, these percentages were 61% and 55%. Of the 4839 patients, 1582 had failure by the PSA criteria, 416 had local failure, and 329 had distant failure. The greatest risk of failure was at 1.5-3.5 years after treatment. The failure rate was 3.5-4.5% annually after 5 years, except in patients with Gleason score 8-10 tumors for whom it was 6%. In multivariate analysis for biochemical failure, pretreatment PSA, Gleason score, radiation dose, tumor stage, and treatment year were all significant prognostic factors. The length of follow-up and the effect of backdating as required by the ASTRO failure definition also significantly affected the outcome results. Dose effects were most significant in the intermediate-risk group and to a lesser degree in the high-risk group. No dose effect was seen at 70 or 72 Gy in the low-risk group.


As follow-up lengthens and outcome data accumulate in the PSA era, we continue to evaluate the efficacy and durability of radiotherapy as definitive therapy for early-stage prostate cancer. Similar studies with higher doses and more contemporary techniques will be necessary to explore more fully the potential of this therapeutic modality.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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