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Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004 Jan;28(1):144-51.

Effects of manipulated palatability on appetite depend on restraint and disinhibition scores from the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire.

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  • 1Experimental Psychology, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK.



The present study evaluated the effects of dietary restraint on short-term appetite in response to manipulated palatability.


The effects of palatability on appetite during a lunchtime meal were assessed by contrasting intake of a bland and palatable version of a simple food (within subject). To test how responses to palatability varied with restraint, these meals consumed by women were classified according to restraint (R) and disinhibition (D) scores from the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) as high R/high D (HR-HD), high R/low D (HR-LD), low R/high D (LR-HD) and low R/low D (LR-LD).


A total of 40 normal-weight women subdivided into four groups based on TFEQ scores.


The overall intake, appetite and hedonic ratings before, during and after the meal.


All groups ate similar amounts of the bland food, but the LR-HD group ate significantly more of the palatable version than the other groups, whereas HR-LD did not increase intake in response to palatability. Hunger increased on tasting the palatable food in all but the HR-LD group, and this group ended both meals more hungry/less full than the others.


Women classified as HR-LD were unresponsive to manipulated palatability, whereas those classified as LR-HD were over-responsive. These findings imply that some individuals are prone to over-respond to palatability and so are at greater risk of developing obesity, whereas others are able to resist the effects of palatability and so successfully self-restrict their food intake. Implications for obesity are discussed.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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