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Mycol Res. 2003 Aug;107(Pt 8):901-16.

The full-length phylogenetic tree from 1551 ribosomal sequences of chitinous fungi, Fungi.

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  • 1Sektionen för kryptogambotanik, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, S-10405 Stockholm, Sweden.

Erratum in

  • Mycol Res. 2003 Nov;107(Pt 11):1376.


A data set with 1551 fungal sequences of the small subunit ribosomal RNA has been analysed phylogenetically. Four animal sequences were used to root the tree. The parsimony ratchet algorithm in combination with tree fusion was used to find most parsimonious trees and the parsimony jackknifing method was used to establish support frequencies. The full-length consensus tree, of the most parsimonious trees, is published and jackknife frequencies above 50% are plotted on the consensus tree at supported nodes. Until recently attempts to find the most parsimonious trees for large data sets were impractical, given current computational limitations. The parsimony ratchet in combination with tree fusion was found to be a very efficient method of rapid parsimony analysis of this large data set. Parsimony jackknifing is a very fast and efficient method for establishing group support. The results show that the Glomeromycota are the sister group to a monophyletic Dikaryomycota. The majority of the species in the Glomeromycota/Dikaryomycota group have a symbiotic lifestyle--a possible synapomorphy for a group 'Symbiomycota'. This would suggest that symbiosis between fungi and green plants evolved prior to the colonization of land by plants and not as a result of the colonization process. The Basidiomycotina and the Ascomycotina are both supported as monophyletic. The Urediniomycetes is the sister group to the rest of the Basidiomycotina successively followed in a grade by Ustilaginomycetes, Tremellomycetes, Dacrymycetales, Ceratobasidiales and Homobasidiomycetes each supported as monophyletic except the Homobasidiomycetes which are left unsupported. The ascomycete node begins with a polytomy consisting of the Pneumocystidomycetes, Schizosaccharomycetes, unsupported group with the Taphrinomycetes and Neolectales, and finally an unnamed, monophyletic and supported group including the Saccharomycetes and Euascomycetes. Within the Euascomycetes the inoperculate euascomycetes (Inoperculata) are supported as monophyletic excluding the Orbiliomycetes which are included in an unsupported operculate, pezizalean sister group together with Helvellaceae, Morchellaceae, Tuberaceae and others. Geoglossum is the sister group to the rest of the inoperculate euascomycetes. The Sordariomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Chaetothyriomycetes and Eurotiomycetes are each highly supported as monophyletic. The Leotiomycetes and the Lecanoromycetes both appear in the consensus of the most parsimonious trees but neither taxon receives any jackknife support.

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