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Ann Thorac Surg. 2003 Oct;76(4):1252-8; discussion 1258.

Intra-myocyte ion homeostasis during ischemia-reperfusion injury: effects of pharmacologic preconditioning and controlled reperfusion.

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  • 1Department of Surgery, Birmingham, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294, USA.



This study determines whether controlled reperfusion or diazoxide improves intramyocyte Na(+) homeostasis using a porcine model of severe ischemia-reperfusion injury.


Three groups (n = 10 pigs per group) had 75 minutes of left anterior descending artery occlusion during bypass. Group 1 had no treatment (control group), group 2 had controlled reperfusion (500 mL warm cardioplegia) (controlled reperfusion group), and group 3 had diazoxide (50 micromol/L before left anterior descending artery occlusion) (diazoxide group). Biopsies were taken from the left anterior descending artery region before ischemia and at 3, 5, and 10 minutes postreperfusion. Intra-myocyte Na(+) and water contents were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy, and Na(+) concentrations were calculated.


Intra-myocyte Na(+) increased for the diazoxide group pigs at 3-minutes postreperfusion (21.9 +/- 2.9 vs 34.0 +/- 3.4 micromol/mL; p = 0.02), but decreased to 19.9 +/- 3.2 micromol/mL at 10 minutes postreperfusion (p = 1.0 vs baseline). At 10 minutes postreperfusion, intra-myocyte Na(+) in the controlled reperfusion group was lower than baseline (22.3 +/- 2.7 vs 17.2 +/- 3.1 micromol/mL; p < 0.001). Intra-myocyte Na(+) at 10 minutes postreperfusion for the diazoxide and controlled reperfusion groups was lower than for the control group (p < 0.05).


Diazoxide and controlled reperfusion improved intra-myocyte Na(+) homeostasis after severe ischemia-reperfusion injury.

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