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Can J Anaesth. 1992 Nov;39(9):932-7.

Treatment of intraoperative hypertension with enflurane, nicardipine, or human atrial natriuretic peptide: haemodynamic and renal effects.

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  • 1Department of Anesthesiology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa, Japan.


The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of the calcium entry blocker nicardipine and alpha human atrial natriuretic peptide (hANP) on antihypertensive and diuretic activity in hypertensive surgical patients. The site of the diuretic actions of these drugs along the nephron were also investigated by measuring the excretion rate of inorganic phosphate (PO4). Hypertension during gastrectomy was treated by increasing the concentration of enflurane, by nicardipine infusion (0.5-2.0 x min-1), or by hANP infusion (0.05-0.2 x min-1) under general anaesthesia. Enflurane, nicardipine and hANP all decreased arterial pressure to the same extent. Urine flow, Na and PO4 excretion increased following the administration of nicardipine or hANP. Fractional distal reabsorption of sodium was suppressed from 89.7 +/- 2.8% to 82.1 +/- 5.0% by the hANP, but not by the nicardipine infusion. Creatinine clearance was increased by hANP infusion, but did not change in the nicardipine group. It is concluded that nicardipine and hANP can be used safely for the treatment of hypertension during surgery. Both drugs induced phosphaturic diuresis, but the site of action of the two drugs on the nephron may be different. Phosphate reabsorption is considered to occur largely in the renal proximal tubule, so that its appearance in the urine in increased quantities without the change of renal circulation in the nicardipine group suggests a proximal tubular action of this drug. However, the site of action of hANP in the kidney was not determined because GFR increased and distal sodium reabsorption was suppressed due to the drug infusion.

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