Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2003 Oct;83(1):29-36.

Lead and other metals in gestational hypertension.

Author information

  • 1Toxicology Unit, Department of Pathology, St. Luke's Hospital, Gwardamangia, Malta.



To identify any effects that lead, calcium, magnesium, and zinc may have on the development of gestational hypertension.


Third-trimester 110 normotensive and 33 gestational hypertension cases were assayed for various metal levels, using standard techniques, including atomic absorption spectrometry.


Gestational hypertension cases showed significantly higher blood lead levels than normotensives. No differences were noticed regarding calcium (ionized and total), magnesium, and zinc levels. Blood lead was significantly related with blood pressure, even after correcting for the body mass indices and age. Blood pressure levels showed no relation to the other analyzed metals. However, the lead:ionized calcium ratio showed a stronger association with blood pressure, than lead alone. Blood lead showed a significant negative relationship with ionized calcium, but none with the other metals.


Blood lead evidently influenced blood pressure increments and gestational hypertension development. This implies that all efforts should be made to reduce the population's exposure.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk