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Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2003 Sep;4(9):733-8.

Epac: a new cAMP target and new avenues in cAMP research.

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  • 1Department for Physiological Chemistry and Centre for Biomedical Genetics, University Medical Center Utrecht, Universiteitsweg 100, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands.


Five years ago, Epac--a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the Ras-like small GTPases Rap1 and Rap2--was found to be a new target of cyclic AMP, which opened up new avenues for cAMP research. Structural analysis of the cAMP-binding domains of Epac2 has identified a unifying mechanism for how cAMP activates proteins, and the design and synthesis of an Epac-specific cAMP analogue has paved the way for future discoveries.

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