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Occup Environ Med. 2003 Oct;60(10):779-83.

Workplace bullying and the risk of cardiovascular disease and depression.

Author information

  • 1Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki, PO Box 9, FIN-00014, Finland. mika.kivimaki@occuphealth.fi

Abstract

AIMS:

To examine exposure to workplace bullying as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and depression in employees.

METHODS:

Logistic regression models were related to prospective data from two surveys in a cohort of 5432 hospital employees (601 men and 4831 women), aged 18-63 years. Outcomes were new reports of doctor diagnosed cardiovascular disease and depression during the two year follow up among those who were free from these diseases at baseline.

RESULTS:

The prevalence of bullying was 5% in the first survey and 6% in the second survey. Two per cent reported bullying experiences in both surveys, an indication of prolonged bullying. After adjustment for sex, age, and income, the odds ratio of incident cardiovascular disease for victims of prolonged bullying compared to non-bullied employees was 2.3 (95% CI 1.2 to 4.6). A further adjustment for overweight at baseline attenuated the odds ratio to 1.6 (95% CI 0.8 to 3.5). The association between prolonged bullying and incident depression was significant, even after these adjustments (odds ratio 4.2, 95% CI 2.0 to 8.6).

CONCLUSIONS:

A strong association between workplace bullying and subsequent depression suggests that bullying is an aetiological factor for mental health problems. The victims of bullying also seem to be at greater risk of cardiovascular disease, but this risk may partly be attributable to overweight.

PMID:
14504368
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC1740404
Free PMC Article
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