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J Immunol. 2003 Oct 1;171(7):3655-67.

Global gene expression profiles during acute pathogen-induced pulmonary inflammation reveal divergent roles for Th1 and Th2 responses in tissue repair.

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  • 1Immunopathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.


T helper 1 responses are typically proinflammatory, while Th2 responses have been considered regulatory. Interestingly, Th2 responses characterize a number of pulmonary diseases, many of which terminate in tissue remodeling and fibrosis. We developed a mouse model using Schistosoma mansoni eggs and cytokine-deficient mice to induce highly polarized Th1- or Th2-type inflammation in the lung. In this study, we examined the pathology and cytokine profiles in Th1- and Th2-polarized environments and used oligonucleotide microarray analysis to decipher the genes responsible for these effects. We further elaborated on the results using IL-10- and IL-13-deficient mice because these cytokines are believed to be the central regulators of Th2-associated pathology. We found that the Th1-polarized mice developed small granulomas with less fibrosis while expressing genes characteristic of tissue damage. Th2-polarized mice, in contrast, formed large granulomas with massive collagen deposition and up-regulated genes associated with wound healing, specifically, arginase, collagens, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and tissue inhibitors of MMP. In addition, several members of the chitinase-like family were up-regulated in the lung following egg challenge. We also developed a method of defining the net collagen deposition using the expression profiles of several collagen, MMP, and tissue inhibitors of MMP genes. We found that Th1-polarized mice did not elaborate collagens or MMPs and therefore did not have a significant capacity for repair in this model. Thus, Th1-mediated inflammation is characterized by tissue damage, while Th2 directs wound healing and fibrosis.

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