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J Mol Biol. 2003 Oct 3;332(5):1115-22.

Crystal structure of trimestatin, a disintegrin containing a cell adhesion recognition motif RGD.

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  • 1Department of Biochemistry, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 2-1-2 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8602, Japan.

Abstract

Disintegrins are a family of small proteins containing an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence motif that binds specifically to integrin receptors. Since the integrin is known to serve as the final common pathway leading to aggregation via formation of platelet-platelet bridges, disintegrins act as fibrinogen receptor antagonists. Here, we report the first crystal structure of a disintegrin, trimestatin, found in snake venom. The structure of trimestatin at 1.7A resolution reveals that a number of turns and loops form a rigid core stabilized by six disulfide bonds. Electron densities of the RGD sequence are visible clearly at the tip of a hairpin loop, in such a manner that the Arg and Asp side-chains point in opposite directions. A docking model using the crystal structure of integrin alphaVbeta3 suggests that the Arg binds to the propeller domain, and Asp to the betaA domain. This model indicates that the C-terminal region is another potential binding site with integrin receptors. In addition to the RGD sequence, the structural evidence of a C-terminal region (Arg66, Trp67 and Asn68) important for disintegrin activity allows understanding of the high affinity and selectiveness of snake venom disintegrin for integrin receptors. The crystal structure of trimestatin should provide a useful framework for designing and developing more effective drugs for controlling platelet aggregation and anti-angiogenesis cancer.

PMID:
14499613
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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