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Am J Psychiatry. 1992 Nov;149(11):1580-4.

Prediction of outcome in mania by mood-congruent or mood-incongruent psychotic features.

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  • 1Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.



The aim of this study was to determine the significance of mood congruence of psychotic features in mania as a predictor of outcome.


Fifty-four patients with bipolar disorder were followed prospectively for 4 years after recovery from an episode of mania with psychotic features. Assessments of residential and occupational status, interepisode symptoms, and episode recurrences were made at 6 and 48 months after recovery. Categorical outcomes were evaluated by logistic regression and recurrence risk with survival analysis.


Mood-incongruent psychotic features during the index manic episode predicted a shorter time in remission at 4 years (hazard ratio = 2.6), and Schneiderian first-rank symptoms predicted poor residential status at 4 years (odds ratio = 20.1).


Differentiation of mood congruence of psychotic features in mania evidently has prognostic validity and, therefore, has utility as a nosological characteristic.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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