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Leukemia. 1992 Oct;6(10):1072-5.

Phase II clinical trial of carboplatin in relapsed and refractory leukemia.

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  • 1Emory University, Atlanta, GA.


Carboplatin is a second-generation platinum complex drug which has demonstrated activity against a variety of neoplasms including acute leukemia, particularly when given by continuous intravenous (i.v.) infusion. Adults with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), either refractory or in first or second relapse, were given a continuous i.v. infusion of carboplatin at a dose of 315 mg/m2 daily for 5 days. A second course was given if the bone marrow at day 14 showed persistent leukemia. If the marrow was hypoplastic, treatment was delayed until marrow recovery was documented. Those with residual leukemia were given a second course. Those achieving complete remission (CR) were given an additional course as consolidation. Of the 46 eligible patients entered (36 AML and 10 ALL) eight achieved CR (17%) of which 6 were AML and 2 ALL. Of nine primary refractory patients, two achieved CR, one AML and one ALL. Excluding the inevaluable patients (protocol violations, patient refused further therapy, early deaths prior to day 14, the CR rate was eight of 28 (29%). All except two CRs required two courses of induction. The non-hematologic toxicity was minimal except for renal and auditory toxicity. Renal toxicity greater than grade 2 was seen in 17 patients and was associated with concomitant use of nephrotoxic antibiotics. In two patients, renal failure was a major factor in the cause of death. Ototoxicity was observed in 11 patients, but was grade 3 in only three. There were 18 deaths during the study. Fourteen died of infection, two died of infection and hemorrhage, one died of hemorrhage while aplastic, and one died of other causes. This trial indicates that carboplatin is an active agent in acute leukemia and warrants further investigation.

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