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Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2003 Oct;18(10):2024-31.

A comparison between cystatin C, plasma creatinine and the Cockcroft and Gault formula for the estimation of glomerular filtration rate.

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  • 1Academic Medical Center, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Room F1-219, PO Box 22700, 1100 DE Amsterdam, The Netherlands. f.j.hoek@amc.uva.nl

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

In clinical practice, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is often estimated from plasma creatinine. Several studies have shown cystatin C (cys C) to be a better parameter for the diagnosis of impaired renal function. No data are available, however, on the performance of cys C in follow-up of patients, compared with creatinine. Also, comparisons of cys C with the Cockcroft and Gault (C&G) formula for estimation of GFR are few.

METHODS:

Plasma samples were obtained from 93 consecutive patients seen for GFR determination and from 30 patients with diabetes mellitus type 2, of whom 23 were investigated a second time after 2 years. GFR was determined with [125I]iothalamate. Plasma creatinine was determined enzymatically and the creatinine clearance calculated according to C&G. Cys C was measured with a particle-enhanced immunonephelometric method.

RESULTS:

GFR correlated with 1/cys C (r = 0.873) as well as with C&G (r = 0.876). The area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating curves (ROCs), a measure of diagnostic accuracy, for cys C (0.931) and C&G (0.938) were equal (P = 0.815) and both better than the creatinine AUC (0.848; P = 0.006). Bland and Altman analysis showed that the simple formula GFR = -4.32 + 80.35 x 1/cys C, derived from our data, gave more accurate (P < 0.0001) and more precise (P = 0.024) GFR estimates than obtained with the C&G formula. The day-to-day variation (biological +analytical) for cys C was small (3.1%, SD 2.51%) in diabetic patients. In the follow-up study in diabetic patients, cys C was the parameter which had the best correlation (r = 0.66) with changes in GFR.

CONCLUSIONS:

Cys C shows a high correlation with GFR. With a very simple formula, cys C gives a good estimate of GFR, more accurate and precise than C&G. Because biological variation is low, cys C gives also a good assessment of GFR changes during follow-up. Cys C is the preferred endogenous parameter for GFR.

PMID:
13679476
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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