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Plast Reconstr Surg. 1992 Apr;89(4):731-9; discussion 740.

Induction of bone in composites of osteogenin and porous hydroxyapatite in baboons.

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  • 1Medical Research Council, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Abstract

A major goal of the combined effort of basic scientists and plastic and reconstructive surgeons is the development of novel bone substitutes based on osteogenic growth and differentiation factors with optimal delivery systems for skeletal repair. Osteogenin is a protein initiator of bone differentiation. The present study examined the osteogenic potential of osteogenin in combination with porous hydroxyapatite replicas obtained after hydrothermal conversion of calcium carbonate exoskeletons of corals. Bovine osteogenin, with an apparent molecular weight of 28 to 42 kDa, purified by hydroxyapatite-Ultrogel adsorption chromatography, heparin-Sepharose affinity chromatography, and HR Sephacryl S-200 molecular sieve chromatography, was delivered into rods of nonresorbable and resorbable hydroxyapatite replicas with an average porosity of 600 microns. A total of 48 rods were bioassayed for osteogenic activity by intramuscular implantation into eight adult baboons (Papio ursinus) as a prerequisite for clinical trials in humans. Bovine osteogenin fractions reconstituted with baboon insoluble collagenous bone matrix were implanted in an additional four adult baboons. Specimens were harvested at 30 and 90 days after implantation and subjected to histomorphometry and alkaline phosphatase activity determination. Differentiation of bone occurred in nonresorbable hydroxyapatite rods, both osteogenin-treated and controls. However, no bone formation was observed in resorbable rods, even in the presence of osteogenin. These results demonstrate that the surface and chemical characteristics of the substratum, independent of the osteogenic stimulus, have a profound influence on the morphogenesis of bone. The demonstration of bone induction in nonhuman primates with porous nonresorbable hydroxyapatite replicas and baboon insoluble collagenous bone matrix reconstituted with bovine osteogenin establishes the therapeutic potential of the principle of bone induction in craniofacial, periodontal, and orthopedic reconstructive surgery.

PMID:
1312241
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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