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Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 2003 Mar;89(3):356-67.

[The water-salt balance and renal function in space flights and in model experiments].

[Article in Russian]

Author information

  • 1Institute of Biol.-Medical Problems, Russian Acad. Sci., Russia, 123007, Moscow, 76a Khoroshevskoe Shosse.

Abstract

Study of a condition of mineral and water-electrolyte metabolism, function of kidneys, and their hormonal regulation during model experiments (hypokinesia, bed rest, immersion etc.), and also in space flights and in readaptation period, has shown a major role of water-electrolyte homeostasis during general adaptation of humans and animals to new conditions of life and to conditions of weightlessness in particular. The change in regulation of volumes of fluid milieu in an initial period of weightlessness was shown to be the consequence of redistribution of blood and hemodynamics of the shifts resulting in change of production of volume-regulation hormones, formation of negative water balance, and redistribution of fluid in the organism among various fluid compartments. At later stages of flight or long-term hypokinesia, a change of water-electrolyte homeostasis occurs with a decrease in the kidneys excretion of sodium, and diuresis, but with an increased excretion of calcium and production of ADH and RAAS hormones. Following returning to earth gravitation, the majority of astronauts have adaptive reactions, compensating for the loss extracellular fluid and mineral substances and formation of "earth" water-electrolyte homeostasis. For estimation of water-electrolyte homeostasis and the functions of kidneys in astronauts, various functional loading tests have been developed. The developed system of preventive maintenance is successfully used for abolition of adverse changes at various stages of space flight and in readaptation period.

PMID:
12968528
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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