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Eur J Pharmacol. 2003 Aug 15;475(1-3):149-59.

Immunobiological activity of N-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)alkyl] derivatives of N6-substituted adenines, and 2,6-diaminopurines.

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  • 1Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Vídenská 1083, 142 20 Prague 4, Czech Republic. zidekz@biomed.cas.cz

Abstract

Acyclic nucleoside phosphonates are novel class of virostatics effective against replication of both DNA-viruses and retroviruses. We found recently, that in addition to the antimetabolic mode of action, some acyclic nucleoside phosphonates such as 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine [(R)-PMPA; tenofovir], which is used in treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, possess immunostimulatory and immunomodulatory activities known to interfere with replication of viruses. The present experiments analyzed immunobiological effects of more than 70 novel derivatives of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates. They comprise substitutions at the N6-amino function of adenine (A) or 2,6-diaminopurine (DAP) by monoalkyl, dialkyl, cycloalkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl or substituted alkyl group, and at the N9-side chain represented by (R)- or (S)-enantiomeric 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl] (PME) and 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl] (PMP) moieties. Their biological effects were investigated in vitro using mouse resident peritoneal macrophages. A number of the compounds under scrutiny, mainly the N6-cycloalkyl derivatives of 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]2,6-diaminopurine (PMEDAP) and (R)-enantiomeric 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine [(R)-PMPDAP] stimulate secretion of cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-10 (IL-10)] and chemokines ["regulated-upon-activation, normal T expressed and secreted" (RANTES), macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha)]. Moreover, they substantially augment production of nitric oxide (NO) triggered by interferon-gamma. The effects are produced in a dose-dependent fashion. The most potent derivatives, i.e. N6-isobutyl-PMEDAP, N6-cyclopentyl-PMEDAP, N6-cyclooctyl-PMEDAP, N6-dimethylaminoethyl-(R)-PMPDAP, N6-cyclopropyl-(R)-PMPDAP, and N6-cyclopentyl-(R)-PMPDAP are more effective than (R)-PMPA (tenofovir) itself. They exhibit immunostimulatory effects at concentrations as low as 1 to 5 microM. It is suggested that these compounds might be prospective candidates for antiviral therapeutic exploitation.

PMID:
12954371
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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