Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Connect Tissue Res. 2003;44 Suppl 1:285-91.

Dental structural diseases mapping to human chromosome 4q21.

Author information

  • 1Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Dental School, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78229-3900, USA.


Genetic diseases affecting tooth structure have been classified by the tissue affected enamel versus dentin, and their pattern of inheritance autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked. Advances in molecular genetics and the Human Genome Project have provided substantial progress regarding the identification of genes involved in the pathogenesis of human diseases. These include dental diseases affecting enamel and dentin formation: amelogenesis imperfecta (AI), dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI) types II and III, and dentin dysplasia (DD) type II. Linkage studies using large informative families have provided insight identifying two proximal gene clusters on human chromosome 4q21 that contain the critical loci for five dental structural diseases. Studies related to the autosomal dominant forms of AI, representing approximately 85% of all cases, have established linkage to 4q21 for two forms: local hypoplastic and smooth hypoplastic AI. Two enamel matrix proteins, ameloblastin and enamelin, have been mapped within the critical regions for these diseases. Located more toward the telomere is another cluster containing loci for three dentin diseases: DGI type II, type III, and DD type II. Located within an overlapping segment of these diseases is a dentin/bone gene cluster that contains osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein also known as osteoblast/osteocyte factor 45 or osteoregulin, dentin matrix protein 1, and dentin sialophosphoprotein. Continuing molecular genetic studies will facilitate the identification of novel tooth matrix proteins within these two tooth matrix gene clusters as well as the identification of additional autosomal dominant AI loci.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk