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J Virol. 2003 Sep;77(18):9831-44.

Enhanced disease and pulmonary eosinophilia associated with formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus vaccination are linked to G glycoprotein CX3C-CX3CR1 interaction and expression of substance P.

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  • 1Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.


Vaccination with formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (FI-RSV) vaccine or RSV G glycoprotein results in enhanced pulmonary disease after live RSV infection. Enhanced pulmonary disease is characterized by pulmonary eosinophilia and is associated with a substantial inflammatory response. We show that the absence of the G glycoprotein or G glycoprotein CX3C motif during FI-RSV vaccination or RSV challenge of FI-RSV-vaccinated mice, or treatment with anti-substance P or anti-CX3CR1 antibodies, reduces or eliminates enhanced pulmonary disease, modifies T-cell receptor Vbeta usage, and alters CC and CXC chemokine expression. These data suggest that the G glycoprotein, and in particular the G glycoprotein CX3C motif, is key in the enhanced inflammatory response to FI-RSV vaccination, possibly through the induction of substance P.

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