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J Psychosom Res. 2003 Sep;55(3):209-14.

Reported nonreciprocity of social exchange and depressive symptoms. Extending the model of effort-reward imbalance beyond work.

Author information

  • 1Department of Medical Sociology, Heinrich Heine-University, P.O. Box 10 10 07, D-40001, Duesseldorf, Germany. knesebec@uni-duesseldorf.de

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To study associations of stressful experience in close social relationships with depressive symptoms a measure of nonreciprocal social exchange in marital, parental and less specific civic roles was developed. This measure aims at extending the model of effort-reward imbalance beyond work.

METHODS:

Data from two national surveys in Germany (n=682) and the United States (n=608) were collected, using probability samples of persons 60 years or older. Reported nonreciprocity was measured by a Likert scale. Psychometric properties are described. Depressive symptoms were measured by the CES-D Scale and relevant covariates were assessed.

RESULTS:

Logistic regression analysis indicates that the risk of depressive symptoms was about twice as high in elderly men and women reporting nonreciprocity of social exchange compared to nonstressed subjects.

CONCLUSION:

Findings provide preliminary evidence of usefulness of a measure that extends the notion of nonreciprocal social exchange beyond working life.

PMID:
12932793
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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