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J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2003;85-A Suppl 3:29-33.

Stimulation of type-X collagen gene transcription by retinoids occurs in part through the BMP signaling pathway.

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  • 1University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine, Philadelphia 19104-6030, USA. sherri@biochem.dental.upenn.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Chondrocyte maturation and hypertrophy during endochondral bone formation are stimulated by both retinoids and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). The type-X collagen gene, which is expressed only in hypertrophic chondrocytes, provides an excellent marker for chondrocyte maturation. We previously identified a 651-base-pair region of the type-X collagen promoter that is essential for its activation by BMP. We examined the relationship between the retinoid and BMP signaling pathways in transcriptional stimulation of the type-X collagen gene to determine whether they act independently or interact to regulate endochondral bone formation.

METHODS:

Prehypertrophic chondrocytes from embryonic chick sterna cultured in the presence or absence of retinoic acid or BMP-2 were transiently transfected with plasmids containing various mutations of the type-X collagen promoter directing expression of a luciferase reporter gene. In addition, real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to examine the effects of retinoic acid on expression of genes encoding BMP-2, 4, and 6.

RESULTS:

The previously identified BMP-responsive region of the type-X collagen promoter also mediated stimulation by physiological concentrations of retinoic acid in prehypertrophic chondrocytes. Systematic deletion mutagenesis of the BMP/retinoid-responsive region of the type-X collagen promoter identified distinct regions that are responsible for promoter stimulation by retinoids and BMP. Retinoic acid rapidly and dramatically stimulated accumulation of BMP-2 and BMP-6 messenger RNAs.

CONCLUSIONS:

These results suggest that, while retinoic acid appears to stimulate type-X collagen gene transcription in part by stimulating the BMP signaling pathway, it also acts in part through mechanisms that are independent of BMP.

PMID:
12925606
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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