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J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Aug 13;51(17):5067-72.

Comparison of natural and roasted Turkish tombul hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) volatiles and flavor by DHA/GC/MS and descriptive sensory analysis.

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  • 1Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Food Research Center, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, LN6 7TS, United Kingdom.


Natural (raw) and roasted hazelnuts were compared for their differences in volatile components and sensory responses. A total of 79 compounds were detected in both hazelnuts, of which 39 (27 positive, 5 tentative, and 7 unknown) were detected in natural hazelnut and 71 (40 positive, 14 tentative, and 17 unknown) were detected in roasted hazelnut. These included ketones, aldehydes, pyrazines, alcohols, aromatic hydrocarbons, furans, pyrroles, terpenes, and acids. Pyrazines, pyrroles, terpenes, and acids were detected in roasted hazelnut only. Concentrations of several compounds increased as a result of roasting and these may play significant roles in the flavor of roasted hazelnut. Pyrazines together with ketones, aldehydes, furans, and pyrroles may contribute to the characteristic roasted aroma of hazelnut. Descriptive sensory analysis (DSA) showed that some flavor attributes such as "aftertaste", "burnt", "coffee/chocolate-like", "roasty", and "sweet" were rated significantly higher in roasted hazelnut compared to its natural counterpart. Natural and roasted hazelnuts can be distinguished using these attributes.

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