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Expert Rev Vaccines. 2003 Apr;2(2):167-88.

Survey of human-use adjuvants.

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  • 1Clinical Development, Iomai Corporation, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20878, USA.


Although there are only four adjuvants used in licensed vaccines for humans, a wealth of information on novel vaccine adjuvants has become available in both animal models and clinical studies over the past decade. Many vaccine candidates require immunopotentiation to achieve a satisfactory immune response, which is driving the search for new and safer approaches. In this review, we take a brief look at what is known of the mechanisms of action, consider some of the elements of product development, then survey several of the classes of adjuvants within the context of human trials.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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