Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Aug 5;100(16):9280-5. Epub 2003 Jul 25.

Visualizing infection of individual influenza viruses.

Author information

  • 1Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.


Influenza is a paradigm for understanding viral infections. As an opportunistic pathogen exploiting the cellular endocytic machinery for infection, influenza is also a valuable model system for exploring the cell's constitutive endocytic pathway. We have studied the transport, acidification, and fusion of single influenza viruses in living cells by using real-time fluorescence microscopy and have dissected individual stages of the viral entry pathway. The movement of individual viruses revealed a striking three-stage active transport process that preceded viral fusion with endosomes starting with an actin-dependent movement in the cell periphery, followed by a rapid, dynein-directed translocation to the perinuclear region, and finally an intermittent movement involving both plus- and minus-end-directed microtubule-based motilities in the perinuclear region. Surprisingly, the majority of viruses experience their initial acidification in the perinuclear region immediately following the dynein-directed rapid translocation step. This finding suggests a previously undescribed scenario of the endocytic pathway toward late endosomes: endosome maturation, including initial acidification, largely occurs in the perinuclear region.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk