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J Control Release. 2003 Jul 31;90(3):261-80.

Biodegradable microspheres for protein delivery.

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  • 1Department of Pharmaceutics, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, 160014 Chandigarh, India.


In a very short time, since their emergence, the field of controlled delivery of proteins has grown immensely. Because of their relatively large size, they have low transdermal bioavailabilities. Oral bioavailability is generally poor since they are poorly absorbed and easily degraded by proteolytic enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract. Ocular and nasal delivery is also unfavorable due to degradation by enzymes present in eye tissues and nasal mucosa. Thus parenteral delivery is currently most demanding and suitable for delivery of such molecules. In systemic delivery of proteins, biodegradable microspheres as parenteral depot formulation occupy an important place because of several aspects like protection of sensitive proteins from degradation, prolonged or modified release, pulsatile release patterns. The main objective in developing controlled release protein injectables is avoidance of regular invasive doses which in turn provide patient compliance, comfort as well as control over blood levels. This review presents the outstanding contributions in field of biodegradable microspheres as protein delivery systems, their methods of preparation, drug release, stability, interaction with immune system and regulatory considerations.

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