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Science. 2003 Aug 1;301(5633):640-3. Epub 2003 Jul 10.

Role of adaptor TRIF in the MyD88-independent toll-like receptor signaling pathway.

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  • 1Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3-1 Yamada-oka, Suita Osaka 565-0871, Japan.


Stimulation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) triggers activation of a common MyD88-dependent signaling pathway as well as a MyD88-independent pathway that is unique to TLR3 and TLR4 signaling pathways leading to interferon (IFN)-beta production. Here we disrupted the gene encoding a Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adaptor, TRIF. TRIF-deficient mice were defective in both TLR3- and TLR4-mediated expression of IFN-beta and activation of IRF-3. Furthermore, inflammatory cytokine production in response to the TLR4 ligand, but not to other TLR ligands, was severely impaired in TRIF-deficient macrophages. Mice deficient in both MyD88 and TRIF showed complete loss of nuclear factor kappa B activation in response to TLR4 stimulation. These findings demonstrate that TRIF is essential for TLR3- and TLR4-mediated signaling pathways facilitating mammalian antiviral host defense.

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