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Lancet Neurol. 2002 Jul;1(3):149-56.

New horizons for stroke prevention: PROGRESS and HOPE.

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  • Department of Neurolgoy, Rush Medical College, Chicago, IL 60612, USA. Philip_B_Gorelick@rush.edu


Inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) act by blocking the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, which is catalysed by this enzyme. ACE inhibitors also prevent the breakdown of bradykinin, a potent vasodepressor agent, and prevent the effects of angiotensin II, which include increase in blood pressure, peripheral vasoconstriction, and stimulation of aldosterone secretion from the adrenal cortex. Physiological and pathological studies have shown that ACE inhibitors have beneficial effects, such as increasing vascular compliance, regression of periarteriolar collagen area, improvement of coronary reserve, and regression of resistance-artery structure and left-ventricular hypertrophy. Information about the role of ACE inhibitors in stroke prevention has been limited. This review explores the epidemiological evidence for hypertension as a risk factor for stroke, a national guideline for blood-pressure control to reduce the incidence of stroke and cardiovascular disease, the findings of two recently published clinical trials on prevention of stroke and cardiovascular disease after administration of ACE inhibitors (PROGRESS and HOPE), and the implications of the findings for redefinition of future management of blood-pressure control for individuals at high risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease. The PROGRESS and HOPE trials have shown that ACE inhibitors have an important role in the prevention of stroke and cardiovascular-disease events.

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