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J Assoc Physicians India. 2003 Mar;51:265-7.

Acute renal failure in Plasmodium vivax malaria.

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  • 1Department of Nephrology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005.



To analyze incidence, clinical feature and outcome of acute renal failure due to Plasmodium vivax malaria.


This is retrospective analysis of smear positive Plasmodium vivax patients with acute renal failure between Jan 1995 to Dec 2000.


Out of 577 cases of ARF, 93 [falciparum 74 (79.61%); vivax 19 (20.4%)] were related to complicated malaria. 3.2% (19/577) patients, 16 males and three females with age range 17-72, mean 43.3 +/- 13.4 years were due to vivax malaria. Thirteen had only vivax and six had mixed falciparum and vivax infection. The presenting features were fever (100%), jaundice (36.8%), hypotension--eight (42%), encephalopathy--11 (57.9%), sepsis--five (26.3%) and DIC--four (21%). The probable contributory factors for ARF were heavy parasitemia--11 (57.9%), hypotension--six (31.5%), hyperbilirubinemia--seven (36.8%), hemolysis--eight (42%) and DIC--four (21%). Oliguria was present in 47.3%, 13 (68.4%) patients required dialysis. Mortality was noted in 15.7% (3/19) patients.


P. vivax malaria can cause ARF, which occurs more commonly in P. falciparum malaria. Renal ischemia is the dominant pathogenic mechanism that results in acute tubular necrosis. The prognosis of ARF in P. vivax malaria is favorable.

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