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J Vector Ecol. 2003 Jun;28(1):108-16.

Biochemical detection of pyrethroid resistance mechanisms in Anopheles minimus in Thailand.

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  • 1Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand.


Enzyme-based metabolic mechanisms of insecticide resistance were investigated, comparing a deltamethrin-susceptible parent stock and resistant colonies of Anopheles minimus species A using biochemical assays. The control parent colony was determined susceptible to the diagnostic lethal concentration of deltamethrin (0.05%), whereas the 6 resistant test populations at selected 4, 8, 12, 14, 16, and 18 filial generations (F4, F8, F12, F16, and F18) demonstrated varying levels of tolerance/resistance to deltamethrin. Expression of levels of non-specific esterases, monooxygenases, and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) were measured. Results indicated that monooxygenase activity was consistently elevated in resistant-selected test populations compared to the parent colony and increased as resistance intensified from F8 to F18. There was a 5-fold increase in monooxygenase in the F18 generation compared to the parental stock. Fluctuations in alpha and beta-esterase activity, measured by hydrolysis of alpha and beta-naphthylpropionate, provided no conclusive evidence of an association with pyrethroid resistance in this mosquito species. GSTs were not elevated in the 6 resistant test populations. Based on our results, it appears likely that the development of physiological resistance to deltamethrin in laboratory, resistant-selected generations of An. minimus is primarily associated with increased detoxification by over-expression of monooxygenases. The oxidases are the major contributors to pyrethroid resistance and the importance of kdr has yet to be convincingly determined. This finding represents the first report from Thailand of this metabolic mechanism of resistance in anophelines.

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