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JAMA. 2003 Jun 25;289(24):3273-7.

Renal insufficiency in the absence of albuminuria and retinopathy among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Author information

  • 1Department of Preventive Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL 60153, USA. hkramer@lumc.edu

Abstract

CONTEXT:

Kidney disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is more heterogeneous than in type 1 DM. Reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) among individuals with type 2 DM may not always be due to classic diabetic glomerulosclerosis, which is associated with albuminuria and retinopathy.

OBJECTIVE:

To determine the prevalence of chronic renal insufficiency (CRI), defined as a GFR less than 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 body surface area (BSA) in the absence of microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria and diabetic retinopathy among adults with type 2 DM.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:

Cross-sectional analysis of adults aged 40 years or older with type 2 DM in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a probability sample of the total civilian US noninstitutionalized population conducted from 1988-1994.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

The GFR per 1.73 m2 BSA, calculated with serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, and serum albumin levels using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study prediction equation; albuminuria, assessed using spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio; and presence of retinopathy, determined with fundus photography.

RESULTS:

Overall, 13% (sampled n = 171) of adults with type 2 DM (n = 1197) had CRI with a population estimate of 1.1 million. Among these adults with CRI, diabetic retinopathy was noted in 28% (n = 58), while the frequencies of microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria were 45% (n = 64) and 19% (n = 47), respectively. Retinopathy and albuminuria (microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria) were both absent in 30% (n = 51) of adults with type 2 DM and CRI. The population estimate of adults with type 2 DM and CRI in the absence of diabetic retinopathy or albuminuria was approximately 0.3 million.

CONCLUSIONS:

A substantial burden of CRI among persons with type 2 DM in the United States is likely due to renal parenchymal disease other than classic diabetic glomerulosclerosis. Approaches to screening renal disease in the type 2 DM population should incorporate assessment of GFR in addition to monitoring urine albumin excretion and funduscopic changes to ensure that individuals with type 2 DM and CRI not due to diabetic glomerulosclerosis will receive appropriate intervention.

PMID:
12824208
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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