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J Appl Physiol (1985). 2003 Oct;95(4):1394-404. Epub 2003 Jun 20.

Cardiovascular variability after arousal from sleep: time-varying spectral analysis.

Author information

  • 1Biomedical Engineering Dept., OHE-500, Univ. Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1451, USA. khoo@bmsr.usc.edu

Abstract

We performed time-varying spectral analyses of heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV) recorded from 16 normal humans during acoustically induced arousals from sleep. Time-varying autoregressive modeling was employed to estimate the time courses of high-frequency HRV power, low-frequency HRV power, the ratio between low-frequency and high-frequency HRV power, and low-frequency power of systolic BPV. To delineate the influence of respiration on HRV, we also computed respiratory airflow high-frequency power, the modified ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency HRV power, and the average transfer gain between respiration and heart rate. During cortical arousal, muscle sympathetic nerve activity and heart rate increased and returned rapidly to baseline, but systolic blood pressure, the ratio between low-frequency and high-frequency HRV power, low-frequency HRV power, the modified ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency HRV power, and low-frequency power of systolic BPV displayed increases that remained above baseline up to 40 s after arousal. High-frequency HRV power and airflow high-frequency power showed concommitant decreases to levels below baseline, whereas the average transfer gain between respiration and heart rate remained unchanged. These findings suggest that 1) arousal-induced changes in parasympathetic activity are strongly coupled to respiratory pattern and 2) the sympathoexcitatory cardiovascular effects of arousal are relatively long lasting and may accumulate if repetitive arousals occur in close succession.

PMID:
12819215
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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