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Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003 Jun;22(6):540-5.

Impact of palivizumab prophylaxis on respiratory syncytial virus hospitalizations in high risk Alaska Native infants.

Author information

  • 1Arctic Investigations Program, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4055 Tudor Centre Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508, USA. ris2@cdc.gov

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Alaska Native children experience extremely high rates of hospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. We evaluated the effect of palivizumab prophylaxis on the incidence of RSV hospitalizations in high risk Alaska Native children.

METHODS:

We analyzed two retrospective cohorts. The first analysis, of southwest Alaska Native children hospitalized with acute respiratory infections during 1993 to 1996 and 1998 to 2001, compared RSV hospitalization rates among premature and nonpremature infants born before (1993 to 1996) and after (1998 to 2001) palivizumab use. The second analysis, of Alaska Native infants with a history of prematurity or lung disease during 1998 through 2001, compared RSV hospitalization among children receiving palivizumab during protected periods (within 32 days after a dose of palivizumab) and unprotected periods.

RESULTS:

First RSV hospitalizations in premature infants from southwest Alaska meeting criteria for palivizumab prophylaxis decreased from 439 per 1000 births before to 150 per 1000 births after palivizumab (relative rate, 0.34; 95% confidence interval, 0.17 to 0.68), whereas the rate in nonpremature infants remained stable (148 per 1000 births compared with 142 per 1000). Among high risk Alaska Native children during 1998 through 2001, the rate of first RSV hospitalization was 0.55 per 1000 protected days and 1.07 per 1000 unprotected days (relative rate, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.28 to 0.93).

CONCLUSIONS:

Palivizumab reduced RSV hospitalizations in high risk infants in a region with high rates of RSV hospitalization.

PMID:
12799511
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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