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Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003 Jun;22(6):515-24.

Review of randomized controlled trials on pneumococcal vaccination for prevention of otitis media.

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  • 1Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University Medical Center Nijmegen, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Increasing resistance to antibiotics of the pathogens causing acute otitis media (AOM) emphasize the need for effective methods to prevent episodes of otitis media in young children.

OBJECTIVE:

To assess the effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination for prevention of AOM in children age 12 years and younger.

METHODS:

Systematic review of 11 randomized controlled trials including 46 074 children in whom pneumococcal vaccination against AOM was compared with a control treatment. Vaccine effect was estimated as a rate ratio (RR): AOM episodes per child month in pneumococcal vaccination group divided by the AOM episodes per child-month in control group.

RESULTS:

A moderate effect of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination was found in children 24 months of age and older [RR 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63 to 0.97]. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine had little effect on prevention of AOM in children without previous documented episodes before vaccination (RR 0.92; 95% CI 0.85 to 0.99). Better efficacy was seen in those children with documented prior AOM before vaccination (RR 0.81; 95% CI 0.72 to 0.91). Pooled results of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine trials in infants vaccinated as early as 2 months of age and in toddlers attending day care showed only a small effect on prevention of AOM (RR 0.92; 95% CI 0.85 to 0.99).

CONCLUSION:

Based on these results, a large scale pneumococcal vaccination program for a primary indication of preventing AOM in infancy is not indicated. The results of ongoing trials should provide more information whether the conjugate vaccine is effective in high risk (otitis-prone) children after 1 year of age.

PMID:
12799508
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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