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Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jun;77(6):1426-33.

Carbohydrate intake and biomarkers of glycemic control among US adults: the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).

Author information

  • 1Food and Nutrition Database Research Center, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Recommendations for preventing and treating type 2 diabetes include consuming carbohydrates, predominantly from whole grains, fruit, vegetables, and low-fat milk. However, the quantity and type of carbohydrates consumed may contribute to disorders of glycemic control.

OBJECTIVE:

We evaluated the association between carbohydrate intakes and biomarkers of glycemic control in a nationally representative sample of healthy US adults who participated in a cross-sectional study, the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

DESIGN:

The sample (5730 men and 6125 women aged > or = 20 y) was divided into quintiles of carbohydrate intake (as a percentage of energy). Carbohydrate intakes were examined in relation to glycated hemoglobin (Hb A(1c)), plasma glucose, serum C-peptide, and serum insulin concentrations by using logistic regression.

RESULTS:

Carbohydrate intakes were not associated with Hb A(1c), plasma glucose, or serum insulin concentrations in men or women after adjustment for confounding variables. Carbohydrate intakes were inversely associated with serum C-peptide concentrations in men and women. Odds ratios for elevated serum C-peptide concentrations for increasing quintiles of carbohydrate intake were 1.00, 0.88, 0.57, 0.39, and 0.75 (P for trend = 0.016) in men, and 1.00, 0.69, 0.57, 0.36, and 0.41 (P for trend = 0.007) in women. When carbohydrate intakes were further adjusted for intakes of total and added sugar, the association of serum C-peptide with carbohydrate intakes was strengthened in men.

CONCLUSIONS:

Carbohydrate intakes were not associated with Hb A(1c), plasma glucose, or serum insulin concentrations but were inversely associated with the risk of elevated serum C-peptide; this supports current recommendations regarding carbohydrate intake in healthy adults.

PMID:
12791619
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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