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Semin Pediatr Neurol. 2003 Mar;10(1):62-7.

Juvenile parkinsonism.

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  • 1Department of Neurology, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52246, USA.


Juvenile parkinsonism (JP) is a clinically and etiologically heterogeneous entity. Unlike in the adult form, secondary causes, hereditary and metabolic conditions, are the predominant causes of JP. Idiopathic Parkinson's disease is very rare in this age group. In most cases of JP, parkinsonism is accompanied by other neurologic features, such as dystonia, cognitive impairment, seizures, oculomotor and visual dysfunction, and ataxia. Systemic findings, such as liver dysfunction or hepatosplenomegaly, may be present depending on the cause. This review article describes the clinical characteristics, classification, genetic basis, pathophysiology, biochemistry, pathology, and treatment of JP.

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