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Nat Rev Immunol. 2003 Jun;3(6):445-53.

TREMs in the immune system and beyond.

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  • 1Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. mcolonna@pathbox.wustl.edu

Abstract

Triggering receptors expressed by myeloid cells (TREMs) belong to a rapidly expanding family of receptors that include activating and inhibitory isoforms encoded by a gene cluster linked to the MHC. TREM1 and TREM2 activate myeloid cells by signalling through the adaptor protein DAP12. TREM1 triggers phagocyte secretion of pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, amplifying the inflammation that is induced by bacteria and fungi. TREM2 activates monocyte-derived dendritic cells and regulates osteoclast development. Remarkably, TREM2 deficiency leads to a severe disease that is characterized by bone cysts and demyelination of the central nervous system, which results in dementia, implying that the function of TREM2 extends beyond the immune system.

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