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Q J Exp Psychol A. 2003 May;56(4):577-99.

Remembering the forgotten? Reminiscence, hypermnesia and memory for order.

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  • 1Department of Psychology, Lake Forest College, Illinois 60045, USA. kelley@lfc.edu


Three experiments established that repeated testing affects item and order retention differently: Hypermnesia was found with repeated free recall tests, whereas net performance declined significantly across successive free reconstruction of order tests. Overall order performance declined over tests under a variety of encoding conditions (pictures, words, and relational and item-specific processing) and retrieval conditions (intentional and incidental learning). Although net performance dropped across tests, participants did show reliable order recovery (reminiscence) between tests. The implications of these data for general theories of hypermnesia and order are discussed.

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