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Meta-analysis of periodontal disease and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke.

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  • 1VA Medical Center, Dental Service, Bedford, Mass, USA. sjanket@hsph.harvard.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The purpose of this study was to analyze published studies and abstracts in order to provide a quantitative summary of periodontal disease as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and to explore the possible causes for conflicting results in the literature.

STUDY DESIGN:

We searched all published literature on the Medline literature search engine since 1980. An additional search was performed with bibliographic citations from each article. Nine cohort studies (8 prospective and 1 retrospective), in which relative risks (RRs), CIs, and P values were reported or could be calculated were included. Four researchers independently extracted RRs, CIs, and P values from each study and evaluated the degree of confounding adjustment. The combined result was calculated with weighted average, and sources of disparity were tested with regression analyses.

RESULTS:

The summary RR was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.08 1.32), indicating a higher risk of future cardiovascular events in individuals with periodontal disease compared with those without. In an analysis stratified to individuals of </=65 years of age, the RR was 1.44 (95% CI, 1.20 to 1.73). When the outcome was restricted to stroke only, the RR was 2.85 (95% CI, 1.78 to 4.56). In the metaregression analysis, the effects of residual confounding caused an overestimate of the results by 12.9% and, with a proxy for periodontal disease, caused an underestimate of 29.7%.

CONCLUSIONS:

Periodontal disease appears to be associated with a 19% increase in risk of future cardiovascular disease. This increase in RR is more prominent (44%) in persons aged </=65 years. Although the increment of risk between subjects with or without periodontal disease in the general population is modest, at around 20% because nearly 40% of population has periodontal disease, this modest increase may have a profound public health impact.

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PMID:
12738947
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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