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DNA Cell Biol. 2003 Feb;22(2):107-17.

Characterization of the human sulfate anion transporter (hsat-1) protein and gene (SAT1; SLC26A1).

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  • 1School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia.


Sulfate plays an essential role during growth, development, bone/cartilage formation, and cellular metabolism. In this study, we have isolated the human sulfate anion transporter cDNA (hsat-1; SCL26A1) and gene (SAT1), determined its protein function in Xenopus oocytes and characterized SAT1 promoter activity in mammalian renal cell lines. hsat-1 encodes a protein of 75 kDa, with 12 putative transmembrane domains, that induces sulfate, chloride, and oxalate transport in Xenopus oocytes. hsat-1 mRNA is expressed most abundantly in the kidney and liver, with lower levels in the pancreas, testis, brain, small intestine, colon, and lung. The SAT1 gene is comprised of four exons stretching 6 kb in length, with an alternative splice site formed from an optional exon. SAT1 5' flanking region led to promoter activity in renal OK and LLC-PK1 cells. Using SAT1 5' flanking region truncations, the first 135 bp was shown to be sufficient for basal promoter activity. Mutation of the activator protein-1 (AP-1) site at position -52 in the SAT1 promoter led to loss of transcriptional activity, suggesting its requirement for SAT1 basal expression. This study represents the first functional characterization of the human SAT1 gene and protein encoded by the anion transporter hsat-1.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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